Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system, there is well-documented evidence demonstrating SARS-CoV-2 infections' impacting the gastrointestinal system and its bacterial symbionts, as well as virtually any organs in the body by causing inflammation, endotheliitis, vasoconstriction, hypercoagulability, lymphocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, elevated fibrin degradation products (FDPs), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism (PE), systemic and pulmonary arterial thrombosis and embolism, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and more.
Nearly 20% of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection had GI symptoms and shed viral RNA in their feces, suggesting the direct connection of the GI system with COVID-19. Additional evidence suggests a direct link between the dysbiosis of the gut microflora and poorer outcomes and slower recovery from COVID-19, extending the repercussions of the dysbiosis far beyond the digestive system. Since the gut is the largest immune organ in the human body containing varieties of good and bad bacteria to maintain a balanced and symbiotic environment, any alteration to that could lead to poorer health in general.
Although it is too early to conclude and make recommendations, the possibility of improving the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients for better outcomes seems promising.